Photovoltaic modules are devices that directly convert solar energy into electricity that takes the form of direct current. They are one of the most important components of photovoltaic systems. Modules can be divided according to many criteria. One of them is the division into unilateral (monofacial) and bifacial. Photovoltaic modules are made up of individual PV cells. With conventional panels, solar radiation is absorbed by only one side of the cell. These elements differ from monofacial panels in that both sides of the cells of which they are made can absorb solar radiation and convert it into electrical energy.
When it comes to albedo, the higher it is, the higher the additional output obtained from PV modules. For example, for white painted concrete, the albedo is 65-80%. For unpainted concrete, this value is estimated at 16%. The albedo of a lawn is around 23%, and light sand is 40%.
When planning the layout of photovoltaic modules, they must not cast shadows on one another. In a classical ground-mounted PV plant, the Ground Coverage Ratio, which determines how much of the plant area (counting along the perimeter of the tables) is covered by the vertical projection of the PV module tables, should be around 35-45% depending on the angle of inclination of the modules. With bifacial modules, the GCR should not exceed 30%.